Release Notes 2020R2

Virtual ICE Development - Performance and Emissions

Introducing new features and updates

The latest release of AVL’s ICE Performance and Emissions Simulation solution – version 2020R2 – includes a range of enhancements that brings a variety of new benefits.

The highlights in 2020R2 include:
System Simulation AVL CRUISE™ M

  • Upgrades and new features in wizard guided modelling
  • New and extended auxiliary models for engine thermodynamics simulations
  • Updates of the Engineering Enhanced Models
  • Enhancements of the exhaust gas aftertreatment simulation capabilities

Component Simulation AVL FIRE™

  • Extended functionalities in physical and chemical models

​​​​​​​Component Simulation AVL FIRE™ M

  • IC Engine Pre-processing: FAME M Engine
  • IC Engine Post-processing
  • Embedded Body and AMR for the ICE Performance and Emission solution


System Simulation CRUISE™ M

Wizard Guided Modelling

CRUISE M 2020R2 offers three wizard guided simulation workflows

  • Engine Model Generator
  • Engine Parameterization Wizard
  • Powertrain Model Generator

These wizards offer low entry barriers for newcomers to CRUISE M and for users who only occasionally engage in system simulation. However, they also support experienced engineers by quickly creating and parametrizing CRUISE M system simulation models for combustion engines as well as combustion engine powertrains.

Compared to the previous release, the 2020R2 version of the Engine Model Generator (EMG) and Engine Parametrization Wizard (EPW) feature the following enhancements:

  • The models generated by EMG and EPW now use the thermal model inside the component rather than external solid walls
  • Thermal sensors have been added to plenum elements for variable wall temperature models generated by the EPW
  • EMG and EPW have now additional standard sensors for IMEP HP, IMEP GE, start of combustion, BMEP, NOx, and exhaust lambda total
  • EPW features additional measurement channels linked to the input of the Engineering Enhanced Diesel cylinder, including injection quantities and timings as well as coolant and oil temperatures
  • In EMG and EPW the default charging type is now set to turbocharged
  • The lower heating value and stoichiometric air-fuel ratio can be defined directly from both EMG and EPW interfaces

CRUISE™ M facilitates the setup of various powertrain architectures with the help of a Powertrain Model Generator (PMG). A modeling engineer specifies coarse data like vehicle type and size, number of axles, and drive technology to get a complete model layout automatically generated. The scope of this model is to represent the powertrain in a generic manner featuring reasonable parameters.

With version 2020R2 the functionality of the PMG is enhanced to support hybrid passenger car powertrains in a parallel configuration.

Figure 1: Engine Model Generator, Engine Parameterization Wizard and Powertrain Model Generator (from left to right)

New and Extended Auxiliary Models for Engine Thermodynamics Simulations

The successful application of engine thermodynamic models in the office environment and on Virtual Testbeds requires continues extensions and improvements of the modelling capabilities. With 2020R2 the following scope has been introduced:

  • A new map-based injector model returns the injection quantity based on given injection duration and pressure. A rail model can be assembled by connecting the new map-based injector with elements of a compressible liquid flow network
  • The new variable valve timing component takes a duty signal from ECU as input and eventually enforces a change of the phase shift of the valves
  • Enhancement of the AVL SI combustion model by offering a new correlation for laminar flame speed and offering ignition delay as calibration parameter
  • New options to specify the behavior of the lambda sensor, namely an internal heater model and the possibility to reduce the chemical model, are introduced

Updates of the Engineering Enhanced Models

Regarding the Engineering Enhanced Models “Cylinder” and “EAS” (formerly MOBEO Cylinder and MOBEO EAS) the following enhancements are offered in version 202R2:

  • The wizards for the parametrization of the Engineering Enhanced Cylinder (gasoline and Diesel) are moved into the ribbon category “wizards”, unifying the access to all wizards. This also allows to fully invoke them into the Engine Parameterization Wizard (EPW).
  • The Engineering Enhanced Gasoline Cylinder now enables the use of external sub-models, for example to substitute internal models like the ignition delay model and the model for emission formation
  • The Engineering Enhanced Gasoline Cylinder features a new friction model, considering a given oil temperature input, based on semi-empirical polynomial functions. These functions consider dependencies on engine speed and temperature.



Figure 2: Icons of the Engineering Enhanced Models Cylinder (left) and Aftertreatment (right)

Enhancements of the New Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Simulation Capabilities

In version 2020R2 several important enhancements for the exhaust gas aftertreatment solution can be found:

  • Engineering Enhanced Reaction Models are applicable to all aftertreatment components. The components EAS System Gasoline and Diesel feature dedicated, engineering enhanced, reaction mechanisms for all different types of catalysts such as DOC, TWC, LNT, SCR, and ASC. With this version of CRUISE M, these reaction mechanisms can also be applied within CRUISE M’s standard aftertreatment components
  • The particle filter component now supports a generic manner modelling and a simulation of arbitrary layers
  • The performance of the particle filter, the catalyst, the pipe and the doser components have been significantly improved to ensure exhaust gas aftertreatment simulations in real time. Tests have shown an average simulation speed-up of about 40% at transient drive cycle conditions
  • For each particle class, additional results are written for the Particulate Number (PN) concentration that enters and leaves an aftertreatment system
  • The usage of the API function getZoneIndex has been extended to both, catalytic and regeneration User Coding Interface (UCI) models, employed in a filter component
  • The UCI can now be started from out of the catalyst and the particulate filter components (as up to now) and directly out of the ribbon (new), group Tools/Generators


Figure 3: CRUISE™ M aftertreatment system as part of a vehicle model


Component Simulation FIRE™

Extended Functionalities in Physical and Chemical Models

The continuously tightening emission and CO2 legislation require continuous adaptation of the simulation models in AVL FIRE. With the release of 2020R2 the following extensions and improvements are offered:

  • TABKIN Flamelet Generated Manifolds (FGM) has been coupled with the Eulerian Flame Tracking (E-FTM) model with the purpose of further improving the calculation of the flame propagation, the heat release and the chemical species concentrations
  • E-FTM and General Gas Phase Reactions (GGPR) have been coupled to enable the use of an arbitrary reaction chemistry together with the G-equation type E-FTM
  • In-situ Adaptive Tabulation (ISAT) and Dynamic Adaptive Chemistry (DAC) have been reengineered for better simulation performance
  • An additional term has been introduced to the Nitrogen Oxide (NO) formation model to account for the impact of EGR on NO formation
  • A multi-component wall film evaporation model is now supplementing the previously released multi-component spray models to support investigations about the impact of (fossil, synthetic and bio) fuel composition on engine key performance parameter


Component Simulation FIRE™ M

IC Engine Preprocessing: FAME M Engine

With the release 2020R2, AVL is underlining its conviction that the ICE will also play an important role in future mobility concepts.

With a focus on GDI engines, FIRE™ M 2020R2 provides a new comprehensive solution for the computational model generation of internal combustion engines, which is very easy and fast to setup and to execute. When developing this solution, the target was set to provide fully automated mesh generation while at the same time greatly simplifying the setup process, to reduce the overall complexity of the modelling process and thus to enable even less experienced users to perform IC engine CFD simulations.

The new solution combines proven tools, such as the Engine Component Finder, FAME™ Engine Plus and FAME™ Poly embedded in AVL’s new Simulation Desktop, with years of experience in ICE modelling, resulting in the new solution called FAME™ M Engine. The only mandatory inputs required to start the FAME M Engine process is engine geometry, crank train dimensions and valve movement data. With this information FAME M Engine intelligently finds the optimal grid settings for the specified geometry and performs its generation fully automatically. The result includes local refinements for pre-chamber jets, spark plugs and similar features.

All inputs provided to the new FAME M Engine can be provided as parameters. This makes running case studies easier than ever. FAME™ M Engine jobs can be directly submitted from within FAME™ M.

FAME™ M Engine grids are compatible with the FIRE™ Solver and modules accessible via the CFD Workflow Manager.

Figure 4: Computational model, generated with the new FAME M Engine

IC Engine Post-processing

With the release 2020R2 we are not only providing an exciting solution for IC engine pre-processing, but we also offer automated IC engine post-processing.

To compare results, you can generate identical reports for any model modification, including design and operating loads. When activated, the software generates a series of plots for pre-selected quantities in defined cross-sections. After the simulation they are shown in a PowerPoint report.


Figure 5: Two pages from an automatically generated standard report for a GDI engine simulation

Embedded Body and AMR for the ICE Performance and Emission Solution

We have released the Embedded Body technology in earlier versions of FIRE™ M. Since then it has been continuously enhanced. With 2020R2 the feature additionally offers:

- New types for pre-defined movement, “General”, “Position” and “Translation”
- Free-moving embedded bodies, i.e. full interaction of the body with the surrounding fluid, due to pressure and shear forces
- Enabling the energy equation while simulating the embedded body in a multi-phase fluid

​​​​​​​Now, with 2020R2 the Embedded Body feature offers effortless model generation and fast and efficient simulation of single and multi-phase flow problems that involve highly complex geometries with or without moving boundaries. Examples related to IC Engine Performance and Emissions include crankcase tilt testing and crankcase ventilation, oil and water pump optimization regarding delivery performance and cavitation, optimization problems in cooling, intake and exhaust systems and also the well-known fuel injection nozzle development to maximize discharge rates and to minimize cavitation / erosion zones.

This claim is supported by improvements in FIRE’s Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), which are available too with 2020R2. With the new release, refined meshes are not stored anymore on the disk. This significantly reduces needed storage space, lowers memory requirements and accelerates I/O.


Figure 6: CAD of a SCR-Mixer embedded in a computational mesh