/ 9 Emission and CO2 EFFICIENT REDUCTION OF REAL DRIVING EMISSIONS Demonstrating compliance with the emission limits for passenger cars under real-world driving conditions requires not only a new generation of portable measurement systems, but also a totally new methodology for developing powertrains and vehicles. AVL provides excellent support in both areas. The Euro 6c Emission Standards, to be introduced in 2017, require that passenger cars and lightduty vehicles prove compliance with emission limits under real-world driving conditions. For OEMs, ensuring compliance with “Real Driving Emissions” (RDE) presents a major challenge. While it used to be sufficient to optimize emissions within the legally required cycles, it is now required not only to tune the vehicle’s entire operating range to optimally fit the emission limits, but also to make sure that the adjustments are just as functional for standard conditions as they would be for a broad range of routes (urban, countryside, highways, etc.), traffic situations or any kind of weather or road conditions (heat, cold, rain). The impact of different driver types additionally needs to be considered. The standard development methodology has started to reach its limits, because one would require a disproportionately high number of test runs to fully cover all driving situations. A solution to the problem is offered by model-based development that optimizes the development tasks considerably by employing physical/empirical models for the engine, exhaust gas aftertreatment and the entire system. RDE also requires a new generation of portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS).
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