Unique – Predictive - Fast


Simulation for Quenching

Virtual Heat Treatment Optimization

Quenching is used in the production of cast or otherwise-produced metal components. In particular, immersion or direct quenching processes are widely adopted procedures in the automotive and aerospace industries to minimize the formation of undesirable thermal and transformational gradients, which may lead to increased distortion and cracking.


The Challenge

Quenching Simulation

  • Can air quenching and oil quenching be simulated?
  • Is it possible to predict spray quenching?
  • Can I consider the martensitic phase transformation during steel quenching?


Residual Stresses

  • How can I localize residual stress concentrations?
  • Do residual stresses depend on processed parameters?
  • Is submerging orientation important?



  • Can I predict structural deformations of large components?
  • Is stacking of numerous parts important?
  • Are quenchant temperature and agitation relevant?


The AVL Solution

AVL FIRE™ offers the unique simulation solution for the quenching process, which is affected by a variety of factors, including initial solid temperature, solid piece orientation or water temperature. The software is architected to accurately predict real-time quenching effects, local temperature gradients and the overall cooling history of complex quenched components – in a single-step approach avoiding time-consuming iterative steps. It has proven to be an accurate numerical tool in numerous complex configurations. Eventually, heat treatment specifics, such as orientation, stacking or quenchant temperature, will influence the nature and the level of residual stresses and deformations.


The Added Value

  • Virtual optimization replacing physical experiment
  • Reduced residual stresses
  • Lower deformations
  • Cutting down on waste 


Ford Motor Company, James Jan et al.

Development and Validation of CFD Methodology to Simulate Water Quenching Process

Proceedings of the ASME 2014 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, Detroit, Michigan, USA, June 9-13 2014


Ford Otosan, Aslihan Mulayim Kaynar et al.

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Water Quench Cooling of Aluminum Cylinder Heads

Orlando, Florida, USA, Aeromat Conference 2014


GM Global Powertrain Engineering, Ke Su et al.

Numerical And Experimental Study Of Aluminum Casting During Water Quenching

Orlando, Florida, USA, Aeromat Conference 2014


Dante Solutions, Li al.

Coupling CFD and Oil Quench Hardening Analysis of Gear Component

28th ASM Heat Treating Society Conference, Detroit, Michigan, USA, October 2015

Related Areas

AVL FIRE™ M is a multi-domain simulation software simultaneously solving non-reacting, single phase fluid flows, heat transfer and solid temperatures in systems without moving boundaries.
Read More

Video - Why simulate Quenching?