Simulation for Powertrain Component Development

AVL FIRE offers software features and validated simulation methods dedicated to combustion system and engine component development, enabling superior engine performance.


AVL Approach

"Always trying to offer the best solution". This is AVL's philosophy when supporting our customers in developing and optimizing their products. More than 25 Years of CFD software development and use in our day-to-day business with numerous projects covering a wide spectrum of applications enable us to provide to you both excellent simulation services and best-in-class software.


Benefits at a Glance

  • Tremendous experience in engine and component engineering, software deployment and software development
  • Dedicated simulation solutions developed based on specialist know-how
  • Global presence, local services: always available for you

Intake System

AVL FIRE is widely used for the development and optimization of the intake air path of IC Engines in order to achieve the best engine performance by:

  • Minimizing pressure losses
  • Harmonizing cylinder charge
  • Establishing uniform distribution of returned exhaust gas
  • Equalizing oil mist return
  • Determining gas side thermal boundary conditions for integrated manifolds

The simulation helps to establish design recommendations to reduce parasitic losses and to obtain optimum engine performance.


Intake Port

AVL FIRE is commonly used as a numerical test bench for intake port design verification. Port concepts are assessed in terms of:

  • Performance requirements based on characteristic indices (discharge rates, swirl / tumble numbers)
  • Permissible production tolerances

The simulation helps to decide port concepts and to derive decisions about the detailed port design.


Injection Nozzle

AVL FIRE is used at leading injection system manufacturers to analyze and optimize injection nozzles in respect of:

  • Steady and transient discharge rates
  • The occurrence of cavitation
  • Material erosion due to the cavitation
  • Flow conditions in the nozzle hole exit areas to enhance primary break-up of the fuel when entering the combustion chamber

The simulation helps to establish recommendations for the injection nozzle design and provides input for subsequent fuel injection simulation.


Diesel Engine (Bowl Layout)

AVL FIRE is used at almost all leading diesel engine developing companies to establish new combustion concepts and optimize existing ones in respect of performance, fuel consumption, emissions and thermal load. Designs are evaluated by investigating the impact of:

  • Different swirl levels
  • Injection strategies
  • Bowl shapes
  • Operating loads

The simulation helps to decide the required swirl level, injection strategy and combustion chamber design.


Diesel Engine

AVL FIRE is used at almost all leading diesel engine development companies to analyze and optimize intake flow, fuel injection, mixture formation, combustion and scavenging in respect of performance, fuel consumption, emissions and thermal load. Designs are evaluated by investigating:

  • Intake stroke: scavenging during valve overlapping, cylinder charge and air motion, mixing between fresh air and EGR
  • Compression stroke: global air motion and local conditions (squish, injector, glow plug)
  • Fuel injection, ignition and combustion: fuel injection, break-up and penetration, wall interaction / liner wetting, glow plug position, auto ignition, peak pressure, heat release, emission formation
  • Exhaust stroke: completeness of scavenging
  • Heat transfer to structure (head, block, piston, etc.)

The simulation is performed to verify the engine development targets. The simulation is also the basis for subsequent engine thermal, overall stress and fatigue evaluation.


Gasoline Engine

AVL FIRE is used at almost all leading gasoline engine development companies to analyze and optimize intake flow, fuel injection, mixture formation, combustion and scavenging in respect to performance, fuel consumption, emissions and thermal load. Designs are evaluated by investigating:

  • Intake stroke: scavenging during valve overlapping, cylinder charge and air motion, mixing between fresh air and EGR
  • Compression stroke: global air motion and local conditions (squish, injector, spark plug)
  • Fuel injection, ignition and combustion: fuel injection and vaporization, wall film, spark plug position, ignition, peak pressure, heat release, knock tendency, emission formation
  • Exhaust stroke: completeness of scavenging
  • Heat transfer to structure (head, block, piston, etc.)

The simulation helps to decide injection strategies and combustion chamber design to meet development targets. The simulation results are also used as input for structural load analysis.


Gas engine

AVL FIRE is used at almost all leading gas engine development companies to analyze and optimize intake flow, fuel injection, mixture formation, combustion and scavenging in respect of performance, fuel consumption, emissions and thermal load. Designs are evaluated by investigating:

  • Intake stroke: scavenging during valve overlapping, cylinder charge and air motion, fuel / air mixture, exhaust gas content
  • Compression stroke: global air motion and local conditions (squish, injector / fuel supply location, spark plug)
  • Fuel injection, ignition and combustion: low and high pressure fuel injection, air / fuel mixture, spark / auto ignition position, ignitability, peak pressure, heat release, knock tendency, emission formation
  • Exhaust stroke: completeness of scavenging
  • Heat transfer to structure (head, block, piston, etc.)

The simulation helps to decide fuel supply strategies and combustion chamber design to meet development targets. It also provides input for structural load analysis.


Exhaust line

AVL FIRE is frequently deployed to analyze the flow in the exhaust line and to optimize of the system in terms of gas dynamics, flow uniformity (T/C, aftertreatment devices) and pressure drop. In the course of this analysis task the simulation also provides input data for thermal load analysis of exhaust manifolds. Exhaust line analysis includes investigating:

  • Flow separation and stagnation
  • System pressure loss
  • Fluctuation and uniformity of the flow at T/C Flange
  • Local gas temperatures and heat transfer coefficients

The simulation helps to decide the exhaust line design and the location of components in the line. It also provides thermal boundary conditions.


Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment

AVL FIRE supports the development of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems at all major OEM's and TIER's as it provides unique and well recognized capabilities to accurately predict species conversion, filter loading and regeneration, AdBlue injection, droplet wall interaction, fluid / wall heat transfer, thermolysis and hydrolysis in SCR Systems. Development support for exhaust aftertreatment systems includes:

  • Analysis and optimization of physical and chemical processes taking place in components of aftertreatment systems to maximize efficiency and effectiveness in respect to pollutant reduction
  • Minimizing component and system pressure drop
  • Optimizing the positioning of aftertreatment components in the exhaust line to ensure fast heat-up and to ensure durability

The simulation helps to determine the design and operation strategies of exhaust gas aftertreatment components and systems. It also provides the input for thermal load analysis of exhaust lines and aftertreatment components.


Coolant Water Jacket

Ease of use and fast project turn-around-time enables FIRE to be used for simulating flows in coolant water jackets targeting appropriate and uniform cooling of all cylinders while minimizing pressure losses in the system. The simulation task includes:

  • Optimizing the flow split between head and block, left and right bank (V- engines)
  • Establishing uniformity of the cooling for all cylinders
  • Enabling precision cooling for thermally highly loaded parts
  • Removal of stagnation zones
  • Evaluation of heat transfer between liquid and structural parts
  • Determination of thermal boundary conditions for HBC analysis

The simulation helps to decide cylinder head design, cylinder head gasket layout and the required coolant mass flow. It provides thermal boundary conditions as input for cylinder head/block compound analysis.


Crankcase

AVL FIRE supports the simulation of the flow in crankcases and components related to or mounted in the crankcase. Typical simulation tasks include virtual tilt and acceleration tests, ventilation and pressure loss estimation, piston cooling, oil mist and droplet transport and separation, simulation of oil supply to crankshaft main bearings and to the connecting rod big end bearings.